List of contributors. Preface. Section I. The history of population coding.1. Population coding: a historical sketch(J.T. McIlwain). 2. The evolution of population and modular neural coding ideas(R.P. Erickson). Section II. New approaches to investigate population coding.3. Overcoming the limitations of correlation analysis for many simultaneously processed neural structures(L.A. Baccalá, K. Sameshima). 4. Distributed processing in cultured neuronal networks(S.M. Potter). 5. Long-term chronic multichannel recordings from sensorimotor cortex and thalamus of primates(N. Jain, H.-X. Qi, J.H. Kaas). Section III. Population coding in sensory systems.6. Temporal and spatial coding in the rata vibrissal system(E. Ahissar, M. Zacksenhouse). 7. Thalamocortical and corticocortical interactions in the somatosensory system(M.A.L. Nicolelis, M. Shuler). 8. Synchronization and assembly formation in the visual cortex(W.A. Freiwald, A.K. Kreiter, W. Singer). 9. Divergence and reconvergence: multielectrode analysis of feedforward connections in the visual system(R.C. Reid). 10. Comparative population analysis of cortical representations in parametric spaces of visual field and skin: a unifying role for nonlinear interactions as a basis for active information processing across modalities(H.R. Dinse, D. Jancke). 11. Coordinate transformations in the visual system: how to generate gain fields and what to compute with them(E. Salinas, L.F. Abbott). 12. Exploring olfactory population coding using an artificial olfactory system(J. White, J.S. Kauer). 13. Neural population coding in the auditory system(E. Covey). 14. Population coding in the auditory cortex(B.H. Gaese). Section IV. Population coding in motor systems.15. Representations based on neuronal interactions in motor cortex(N.G. Hatsopoulos, M.T. Harrison, J.P. Donoghue). 16. Connectionist contributions to population coding in the motor cortex(S.L. Moody, S.P. Wise). 17. Distributed processing in the motor system: spinal code perspective(Y. Prut, S.I. Perlmutter, E.E. Fetz). 18. Coding in the granular layer of the cerebellum(E. De Schutter, J.G. Bjaalie). 19. The cerebellum as a neuronal prosthesis machine(J.P.Welsh, C. Schwartz, Y. Garbourg). Section V. Population coding and learning.20. Do sleeping birds sing? Population coding and learning in the bird song system(D. Margoliash). 21. Accuracy and learning in neuronal populations(K. Zhang, T.J. Sejnowski). Section VI. Population coding and higher cognitive functions.22. What ensemble recordings reveal about functional hippocampal cell encoding(R.E. Hampson, J.D. Simeral, S.A. Deadwyler).