Adsorption by Powders and Porous Solids

Principles, Methodology and Applications


  • Jean Rouquerol, Centre de Thermodynamique, Marseilles, France
  • Françoise Rouquerol, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseilles, France
  • Philip Llewellyn, Laboratoire des Matériaux Divisés, Revetements, Electrocéramiques, Université de Provence-CNRS, Marseille, France
  • Guillaume Maurin, Institut Charles Gerhardt, Universite de Montpellier II, Montpellier, France
  • Kenneth Sing, Department of Chemistry, Brunel University, Uxbridge

The declared objective of this book is to provide an introductory review of the various theoretical and practical aspects of adsorption by powders and porous solids with particular reference to materials of technological importance. The primary aim is to meet the needs of students and non-specialists who are new to surface science or who wish to use the advanced techniques now available for the determination of surface area, pore size and surface characterization. In addition, a critical account is given of recent work on the adsorptive properties of activated carbons, oxides, clays and zeolites.
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Advanced undergraduates, postgrads, researchers, and practitioners in physical chemistry, materials science, surface science, and chemical engineering.


Book information

  • Published: October 2013
  • ISBN: 978-0-08-097035-6


Review of first edition

"A long-awaited but worthy successor to the book considered by many to be the bible of porous materials characterization: ‘Gregg & Sing’ (2nd Edition, 1982). This collaboration between the Rouquerols and Ken Sing has created a detailed handbook covering not only important theoretical aspects, but copious experimental and application information too. Adsorption calorimetry gets more attention than before (not surprising given the Rouquerols' affiliation), as do ‘new’ materials such as MCM's and ‘new’ calculation models like DFT (Density Functional Theory) and Monte Carlo simulation. Importantly, there is a great deal of coverage given to adsorptives other than nitrogen (the most common but not necessarily the most appropriate in all cases). Hundreds of references are given for follow-up reading in areas of special interest. Anyone seeking a reliable, broad, yet highly informative coverage of adsorption methodology for porous materials characterization should invest in this title."--Worthy Successor by "thomasetc" (USA), June 29, 2000,

Table of Contents

List of main symbols
1. Introduction         
   1.1. Importance of adsorption
   1.2. Historical aspects
   1.3. IUPAC definitions and terminology
   1.4. Physisorption and chemisorption
   1.5. Physisorption isotherms
   1.6. Energetics of physisorption and molecular modelling
   1.7. Diffusion of adsorbed molecules

2. Thermodynamics of adsorption at the gas-solid interface    
   2.1. Introduction
   2.2. Quantitative expression of adsorption
   2.3. Thermodynamic potentials of adsorption
   2.4. Thermodynamic quantities related to the adsorbed states in the Gibbs representation
   2.5. Thermodynamic quantities related to the adsorption process
   2.6. Indirect derivation of the adsorption quantities of adsorption from of a series of
        Experimental physisorption isotherms : the isosteric method
   2.7. Derivation of the adsorption quantities from calorimetric data 
   2.8. Other methods for the determination of differential enthalpies of gas adsorption
   2.9. State equations for high pressure: single gas and mixtures

3. Methodology of gas adsorption       
   3.1. Introduction
   3.2. Determination of the surface excess amount (and amount adsorbed)
   3.3. Gas adsorption calorimetry
   3.4. Adsorbent outgassing
   3.5. Presentation of experimental data

4. Adsorption at the liquid-solid interface     
   4.1. Introduction
   4.2. Energetics of immersion in pure liquid
   4.3. Adsorption from liquid solution

5. The interpretation of physisorption isotherms at the gas-solid interface: the classical approach
   5.1. Introduction
   5.2. Adsorption of a pure gas
   5.3. Adsorption of a gas mixture

6. Molecular simulation and modelling of physisorption in porous solids    
   6.1. Introduction
   6.2. Microscopic description of the porous solids
   6.3. Intermolecular potential function
   6.4. Characterization computational tools
   6.5. Modeling of adsorption in porous solids
   6.6. Modeling of diffusion in porous solids.
   6.7. Conclusions and future challenges

7. Assessment of surface area     
   7.1. Introduction
   7.2. The BET method
   7.3. Empirical methods of isotherm analysis
   7.4. The fractal approach
   7.5. Conclusions and recommendations

8. Assessment of mesoporosity
   8.1. Introduction     
   8.2. Mesopore volume, porosity and mean pore size
   8.3. Capillary condensation and the Kelvin equation
   8.4. â€˜Classical’ computation of the mesopore size distribution
   8.5. DFT computation of the mesopore size distribution 
   8.6. Hysteresis loops
   8.7. Conclusions and recommendations

9. Assessment of microporosity                 
   9.1. Introduction
   9.2. Gas physisorption isotherm analysis
   9.3. Microcalorimetric methods
   9.4. Conclusions and recommendations

10. Adsorption by active carbons  
    10.1. Introduction
    10.2. Active carbons: preparation, properties and applications
    10.3. Physisorption of gases by non-porous carbons
    10.4. Physisorption of gases by porous carbons
    10.5. Adsorption at the carbon-liquid interface
    10.6. Low pressure hysteresis and adsorbent deformation
    10.7. Characterization of active carbons: conclusions and recommendations
11. Adsorption by metal oxides    
    11.1. Introduction
    11.2. Silica
    11.3. Alumina
    11.4. Titanium dioxide
    11.5. Magnesium oxide
    11.6. Other oxides: chromium, iron, zinc, zirconium, beryllium and uranium
    11.7. Applications of adsorbent properties of metal oxides

12. Adsorption by clays, pillared clays, zeolites and aluminophosphates
    12.1. Introduction
    12.2. Structure, morphology and adsorbent properties of layer silicates
    12.3. Pillared clays - structures and properties
    12.4. Zeolites - synthesis, pore structures and molecular sieve properties
    12.5. Aluminophosphate molecular sieves - structures and properties
    12.6. Applications of clays, zeolites and phosphate-based molecular sieves

13. Adsorption by ordered mesoporous materials
    13.1. Introduction
    13.2. Ordered mesoporous silicas
    13.3. Effect of surface functionalization on adsorption properties
    13.4. Ordered organosilica materials
    13.5. Replica materials

14. Adsorption by metal-organic frameworks 
    14.1. Introduction
    14.2. Assessment and meaning of the BET area of MOFs
    14.3. Effect of changing the nature of the ligands
    14.4. Effect of changing the metal centre
    14.5. Changing the nature of other surface sites
    14.6. Influence of extra-framework species
    14.7. Special case of the flexibility of MOFs
    14.8. Towards application performances