1 - AN OVERVIEW OF ADDITIVES
Types and uses of additives; The main effect of additives on the properties of a compound; Main types of additive for plastics, and their functions.
2 - OVERVIEW: TYPES AND MAIN TECHNICAL TRENDS
Current lines of development: fillers, pigments, plasticisers, stabilisers, flame retardants; Special additives, antistatic and conductive additives, food contact and medical additives, clarifiers, nucleating agents, compatibilisers; Multi-functional formulations; Masterbatches; Dendritic polymers.
3 - OVERVIEW: THE WORLD MARKETModifying specific properties: mechanical properties: 4 - FILLERS
World consumption of additives; World production and consumption of major thermoplastics, 1999-2005 ('000 tonnes); The market for masterbatch; Commercial trends; Growth of specialist compounders; Regional factors; Recent mergers and takeovers in the additives sector (1997-2000).
Effect of fillers: mechanical properties, thermal properties, moisture content, reinforcement mechanism of fillers - Factors for compounding, aggregation of fillers - Types of fillers: calcium carbonate, kaolin, magnesium hydroxide (talc), wollastonite, silica, metal powders, microspheres, expandable microspheres, cellulose fillers - Surface modification: particle geometry, coating - Nano technology, processing nanocomposites - Commercial trends.
Modifying specific properties: mechanical properties:Modifying specific properties: colour and appearance:6 - PIGMENTS, DYESTUFFS, SPECIAL EFFECTS
5 - REINFORCEMENTS
Fibres - the basic properties; Types of reinforcing fibre: aramid, carbon/graphite, glass fibre, E-CR glass, polyester, hybrid fibres; Other fibres: asbestos, boron, nylon; Natural fibres; Forms of reinforcement; Long fibre reinforcement; New developments; Commercial trends.
Main types of pigment and colourant: mixed metal oxides, dyes, liquid colours; Addition of colourants; Replacement of cadmium; Special effects: aluminium, pearlescents, light interference pigments, fluorescents, thermochromic and photochromic; Laser marking; Pigment dispersants; Multifunctional systems; Pigments for engineering plastics; Effect of pigments on dimensions; Recent developments; Commercial trends.
Modifying specific properties: appearance:Modifying specific properties: resistance to heat:8 - HEAT STABILISERS
7 - PIGMENTS: BLACK AND WHITE
Types of white pigment: titanium dioxide, surface treatments, opacity and tinting strength; zinc sulphide; Other white pigments and extenders; Properties of white pigments and fillers; White masterbatch; New developments; Black pigments: carbon black, Effect of particle size and structure on properties; Testing for properties; Other black pigments; Black masterbatch; Recent developments; Commercial trends: titanium dioxide, carbon black.
How they work; Polymer heat-stabilisers selection guide; Antioxidants: primary, secondary; Blends; Replacement of heavy metals; Effect of silica; Benzoxazolone derivatives; New chemistry for stabilisers: lactone chemistry, Vitamin E; Recent developments; Other stabilisers.
Modifying specific properties: resistance to light:Modifying specific properties: flammability:10 - FLAME RETARDANT ADDITIVES
9 - UV STABILISERS
How they work; UV screening pigments; Absorbers; Energy transfer agents/quenchers; Hindered amine light stabilisers; Synergists with HALS; Polymeric stabilisers; Blends; Replacement of heavy metals; UV-stabilisers selection guide; Selection of antioxidants for use with UV stabilisers; New chemistry; Recent developments.
How they work; Summary of the main FR additives: reactive, additive; Halogenated compounds: chlorinated, brominated; Other flame retardants: melamine cyanurate (MC); Phosphorus; Effect of individual fillers; Combinations of flame retardants; Synergistic reactions; Intumescents; Halogen-free systems; Health and the environment: Recycling; New developments: Nanocomposites; Commercial trends.
Modifying specific properties: conductivity:Modifying processing characteristics: 12 - CURING SYSTEMS FOR THERMOSETS
11 - ANTISTATIC/CONDUCTIVE ADDITIVESClassification of antistatic additives; Conductive additives; ESD (electrostatic discharge) compounds; EMI (electromagnetic interference) compounds; Metallic additives; Comparison of different conductive systems; Coated polymers; Intrinsically conductive materials; Recent developments.
The curing process; Curing agents, accelerators; Applications of organic peroxides; Inhibitors; Curing with/without accelerators; Selecting a curing system; Curing agents for epoxy systems; Thermoplastics crosslinking; New developments; Commercial trends.
Modifying processing characteristics:Modifying processing characteristics:14 - PLASTICISERS
13 - CROSSLINKING, COUPLING, COMPATIBILISING
Classification of antistatic additives; Conductive additives; ESD (electrostatic discharge) compounds; EMI (electromagnetic interference) compounds; Metallic additives; Comparison of different conductive systems; Coated polymers; Intrinsically conductive materials; Recent developments.
The function of plasticisers; Main types: phthalates, sebacates and adipates, fatty acid esters, oligomeric/polymeric, epoxies; Extenders and secondary plasticisers; Health and safety; Reducing the level of plasticisers; Recent developments; Commercial trends.
Modifying processing characteristics: Modifying processing characteristics: 16 - PROCESS MODIFIERS AND PROCESSING AIDS
15 - BLOWING AGENTS
The function of blowing agents; Physical blowing agents; Chemical blowing agents; Structural foams; Syntactic structural foam; Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): Flexible foams, Rigid foams, Pentane, Expanded polystyrene; New developments.
Impact modification; Elastomer modification: acrylic rubber, styrenics, polyolefins, polybutene; Dimer acids; Calcium carbonate; modification of CPEE polymers; silicon and phosphorus (PMMA); Impact modifiers for thermosetting resins; Processing aids; Clarifying/nucleating agents; Fluoropolymers; New developments: core-shell rubbers, silicones, modification of engineering thermoplastics.
Modifying processing characteristics: Other types of additive:18 - MISCELLANEOUS ADDITIVES
17 - LUBRICANTS, MOULD RELEASE AGENTS, SLIP AND ANTI-BLOCK
Typical lubricants for thermoplastics; Lubricants for performance; Lubricants as processing aids: Metallic stearates, Hydrocarbons, Fatty acid amides and esters, Primary amides, Secondary amides, Acrylics, styrene copolymers, Polyolefin waxes, Polyamides, Fluoropolymers, Silicone, Boron nitride; Combination and modification; Release agents for thermosetting resins.
Antibacterials and biocides; Degradation additives; Shrinkage modifiers, low profile additives; Improved barrier properties: gas barrier coatings, resorcinol additives, plasma technology; Hard coatings; Thermal insulation; Fragrance; Antifogging; Acoustic insulation; Surfactants, foam control additives; Mould-treatment agents.
Other types of additive:Other types of additive:20 - ADDITIVES AND RECYCLING
19 - ADDITIVES FOR RUBBER
Process aids; Accelerators; Accelerator activators; Curing agents; Antidegradants; Fillers; Colourants; Other additives (retarders, blowing agents); New developments: silica.
Stabilising, re-stabilising; Stabilisers; Improvement of properties; Desiccants; PE/PVC compatibilising; Melt flow/viscosity modification; Additives for identification of plastics; Equipment for recycling.
Background information:Background information:22 - HEALTH AND SAFETY
21 - MIXING AND COMPOUNDING
Incorporation of additives; Mixing thermosets; Mixing thermoplastics: dry mixers, calendering, extrusion compounding, compounding mineral fillers, fine talc masterbatch, single- and twin-screw extruders, adjustable screw geometry; Colour dosing; Recent developments.
Production, storage and transportation: fire/explosion, emissions, skin/body contact, dust; Hazards by additive: carbon black, titanium dioxide, flame retardants, glass fibre, styrene monomer, isocyanates; Use: toxicity - food contact, flame retardants, plasticisers; Disposal: landfill - heavy metals, incineration; Health and Safety at the workplace: some guidelines; New developments.
23 - TESTING AND LEGISLATION
Summary of relevant environmental legislation; Blowing agents; Flame retardants; Heavy metals/cadmium pigments; Plasticisers; Food packaging; Migration levels; Medical products and packaging; Waste and recycling; Physical testing
GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS
STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS FOR PLASTICS AND ELASTOMERS