Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays

Fundamentals and Applications


  • Willem den Boer, Principal Scientist, Planar Systems, Inc.

Active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) are the preferred choice when thin, low power, high quality, and lightweight flat panel displays are required. Here is the definitive guide to the theory and applications of AMLCDs.Contemporary portable communication and computing devices need high image quality, light weight, thin, and low power flat panel displays. The answer to this need is the color active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD). The rides of AMLCD technology over less than two decades to undisputed dominance as a flat panel display has been breathtaking, and designers of portable devices need a thorough understanding of the theory and applications of AMLCDs. Willem den Boer, a holder of over 30 patents in imaging technologies, has created this guide to AMLCD theory, operating principles, addressing methods, driver circuits, application circuits, and alternate flat display technologies (including active matrix flat panel image sensors). Numerous design and applications examples illustrate key points and make them relevant to real-world engineering tasks. Need more information on Mobile Displays, go to:
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Designers of devices requiring a display. Electronics engineering students.


Book information

  • Published: September 2005
  • Imprint: NEWNES
  • ISBN: 978-0-7506-7813-1

Table of Contents

Preface1. Introduction1.1 Historical Perspective1.2 Liquid Crystal Properties1.3 Polarization, Dichroism, and Birefringence1.4 The Twisted Nematic Cell1.5 Limitations of Passive Matrix Addressing 2. Operating Principles of Active Matrix LCDs2.1 The Case of Active Matrix2.2 Requirements for Active Matrix Switching Devices2.3 The Thin Film Transistor2.4 Thin Film Silicon Properties2.5 Amorphous Silicon TFTs2.6 Poly-Silicon TFTs2.7 Basic Pixel Circuit and Addressing Methods2.8 Diode-Based Displays2.9 Plasma-Addressed LCDs3. Manufacturing of AMLCDs3.1 Basic Structure of AMLCDs3.2 Thin Film Processing3.3 Thin Film Properties3.4 Amorphous Silicon TFT Array Processes3.5 Poly-Si TFT Array Processes3.6 Color Filter Array Process3.7 LC Cell Assembly3.8 Module Assembly3.9 Yield Improvements and Considerations3.10 Trends in Manufacturing4. AMLCD Electronics4.1 Drive Methods4.2 Row Select and Column Data Drivers4.3 Timing Controllers, Display Controllers, and Interfaces4.4 Integration of Electronics on Glass4.5 Backlights4.6 Power Consumption5. Performance Characteristics5.1 Basics of Photometry and Colorimetry5.2 Brightness and Contrast Ratio5.3 Viewing Angle Behavior5.4 Color and Gray Scale Performance5.5 Response Time and Flicker5.6 Resolution and Size5.7 Image Artifacts6. Improvement of Image Quality in AMLCDs6.1 Brightness Improvements6.2 Readability Under High Ambient Lighting Conditions6.3 Color Gamut Improvements6.4 Wide Viewing Angle Technologies6.5 Enhancement of Video Performance6.6 Large Size7. Special AMLCD Configurationsa. Ultra-High-Resolution Monitors and Improved Gray Scaleb. Reflective and Transflective Displaysc. Field-Sequential Color LCDsd. Stereoscopic AMLCDse. Touch Screen Technologies8. Alternative Flat Panel Display Technologies8.1 Plasma Displays8.2 Electroluminescent Displays8.3 Electronic Paper and Flexible Displays8.4 Organic Thin Film Transistors8.5 Front and Rear Projection Displays9. Active Matrix Flat Panel Image Sensors9.1 Flat Panel Image Sensors9.2 Direct Conversion Detectors9.3 Indirect Conversion Detectors9.4 Applications of Flat Panel X-Ray SensorsIndex