A Practical Approach to Water Conservation for Commercial and Industrial Facilities


  • Mohan Seneviratne, Mohan Seneviratne, Director of Water Efficiency and Substitution, at the Queensland Water Commission, Australia

Industry and commerce use vast amounts of water and in some parts of the world water is becoming a scarce commodity. We need to take more care in our future use of water, and this book is a 'best practice' manual for industrial and commercial users world-wide. It offers a practical account of the measures which can be taken to re-educate industrial and commercial users in the techniques of water saving and re-use anywhere in the world. The principles are covered in detail and supported by examples from specific industries and commercial operations. Author Mohan Seneviratne is Manager of Sydney Water's 'Every Drop Counts Business Program', which won the prestigious 2006 Stockholm Industry Water Award in recognition of how the utility is working in partnership with business, industry and government to help ensure the long-term sustainability of Sydney’s water supply.
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Water companies; local and national government; environmental mangaers; utilities engineers; architects; manufacturing industries


Book information

  • Published: May 2007
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-1-85617-489-3

Table of Contents

1 Water Conservation – A Priority for Business 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Global Water Resources Availability 1.3 Human Need for Safe Drinking Water and Proper Sanitation 1.4 Meeting Agricultural Needs 1.5 The Impact of Climate Change 1.6 Business Sector Water Usage 1.7 Nine Reasons for Business to Reduce Their Water Consumption 2 Basic Water Chemistry 2.1 Overview 2.2 Solubility Principles 2.3 Common Substances Found in Water 3 Saving Water: Step by Step 3.1 Developing a Sustainable Water Management Plan 3.2 Step 1: Seek Senior Management Commitment 3.3 Step 2: Appoint A Water Conservation Manager 3.4 Step 3: Gather Baseline Data and Review Usage 3.5 Step 4: Identify Improvement Opportunities 3.6 Step 5: Preparing the Plan Prioritising the Opportunities 3.7 Step 6: Report the Results 4 Measuring Flow and Consumption 4.1 Flow Measurement 4.2 Types of FlowMeters 4.3 Selecting a Flowmeter 4.4 Dataloggers 4.5 Chemical Methods of Flow Measurement 5 Cooling Water Systems 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Types of Cooling Systems 5.3 Types of Cooling Towers 5.4 Water Conservation Opportunities 5.5 Alternative Water Sources 5.6 Cooling Water Treatment for Recirculating Water Systems 5.7 Role of Water Treatment Contractors in Water Conservation 6 Alternatives to Wet Cooling Towers 6.1 Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Systems 6.2 Energy Conservation=Water Conservation 6.3 Alternative Heat Rejection Systems 7 Steam Systems 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Steam System Principles 7.3 Steam and Energy Conservation Opportunities 7.4 Calculating the “True” Cost of Steam 8 Industrial Water Reuse Technologies 8.1 Introduction 8.2 A Step-by-Step Approach to Water Reuse 8.3 Pollutants Found in Reuse Streams8.4 Removal of Pollutants 8.5 Removal of Suspended Solids 8.6 Removal of Fats, Oils and Greases 8.7 Removal of Biodegradable Organics 8.8 Removal of Heavy Metals 8.9 Adsorption 8.10 Membranes for Removal of Dissolved Ions 9 Making a Financially Sound Business Case 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Management Functions 9.3 Making a Good Business Case 9.4 Computing Cash Flows 9.5 Investment Appraisal Methods 9.6 Assessing Project Risk 10 The Hospitality Sector 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Benchmarking Water and Energy Consumption 10.3 Steps to Achieve Water Savings 10.4 Staff Awareness Programmes 10.5 Guest Awareness Programmes 11 Commercial Buildings, Hospitals and Institutional Buildings 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Commercial Property – Office and Retail 11.3 Hospitals 11.4 Correctional Centres 12 Swimming Pools 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Water Conservation Opportunities 13 Food Processing and Beverage Industry 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Water and Energy Usage 13.3 Understanding the Process and Where Water is Used 13.4 Benchmarking Water Usage and Comparing it Against Best Practice 13.5 Water Minimisation Measures in the Food-Processing Industry 14 Oil Refining 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Oil Refining Processes 14.3 Water Usage 14.4 Water Conservation Opportunities 15 Laundries15.1 Introduction 15.2 Industry Structure 15.3 Types of Laundry Equipment 15.4 Benchmarking 15.5 Water Conservation