Understanding Mental Illness Through Gene-Environment Interactions

The Study of Epigenetics in Psychiatry

Philadelphia, PA, 17 March 2009 – Biological Psychiatry, published by Elsevier, is very pleased to present a special section of its February 1st issue devoted to fundamental new insights into epigenetics, a field of research devoted to understanding how the environment can produce long-lasting or even heritable changes in gene function without altering the DNA sequence.

The study of epigenetics in psychiatry promises several key advances, as noted by Eric J. Nestler, M.D., Ph.D., a Deputy Editor forBiological Psychiatry and an expert in this field. First, it enables, for the first time, direct study of mechanisms controlling transcription, the process of expressing the genetic information coded within DNA, in the brains of behaving animals as well as in brain tissue from humans studied at autopsy. Second, some epigenetic changes in the brain are likely to be extremely long-lived, and thereby represent potential mechanisms by which life events, or psychotropic drugs or even psychotherapy, can produce stable, long-lasting changes in behavior. Third, epigenetics can be viewed as a third general type of mechanism, in addition to genetic and environmental factors, that contributes to an individual’s unique vulnerability or resistance to a psychiatric disturbance. Dr. Nestler adds that, “for example, epigenetic changes, including those that occur randomly during the highly complex process of brain development, could help explain the high discordance rates between monozygotic twins seen for many psychiatric syndromes, the chronic relapsing nature of these syndromes, and the striking differences in prevalence for several psychiatric illnesses observed between men vs. women.”

One of the Review articles in this issue, by J. David Sweatt, Ph.D., addresses the role of epigenetic mechanisms in controlling behavioral function and dysfunction. Specifically, he discusses recent findings that demonstrate that individuals’ life experiences drive changes in the central nervous system, particularly in relation to learning and memory. Dr. Sweatt is also a talented artist and his painting adorns the cover of this issue of Biological Psychiatry. In another Review, Akbarian and Huang discuss mutations of genes that are involved in the regulation of histone lysine methylation, a type of epigenetic modification, that are associated with neurodevelopmental diseases, including mental retardation, autism and schizophrenia. They include novel approaches on examining how these mechanisms operate in a healthy or diseased brain. In the final epigenetics article of this issue, Monteggia and Kavalali examine the epigenetics of Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes mental retardation and autistic-like behavior, as it arises from mutations in a gene that is believed to alter synaptic transmission.

In all, these epigenetics papers provide fundamental new insights into the complex issues of gene-environment interactions and will aid future work that attempts to advance our understanding of mental illness.

# # #

Notes to Editors:
The first article is “Experience-Dependent Epigenetic Modifications in the Central Nervous System” by J. David Sweatt. Dr. Sweatt is affiliated with the Department of Neurobiology and Evelyn F. McKnight Brain Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

The second article is “Epigenetic Regulation in Human Brain—Focus on Histone Lysine Methylation” by Schahram Akbarian and Hsien-Sung Huang. The authors are affiliated with the Department of Psychiatry, Brudnick Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts. Dr. Huang is also with the Program in Neuroscience, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts.

The third article is “Rett Syndrome and the Impact of MeCP2 Associated Transcriptional Mechanisms on Neurotransmission” by Lisa M. Monteggia and Ege T. Kavalali. Dr. Monteggia is with the Department of Psychiatry while Dr. Kavalali is with the Departments of Neuroscience and Physiology, both at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

These articles appear in Biological Psychiatry, Volume 65, Issue 3 (February 1, 2009), published by Elsevier.

The authors’ disclosures of financial and conflicts of interests are available in the applicable article. Dr. Nestler's disclosures of financial and conflicts of interests are available here.

Full text of the articles mentioned above is available upon request. Contact Jayne M. Dawkins at (215) 239-3674 or ja.dawkins@elsevier.com to obtain a copy or to schedule an interview.

About Biological Psychiatry
This international rapid-publication journal is the official journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry. It covers a broad range of topics in psychiatric neuroscience and therapeutics. Both basic and clinical contributions are encouraged from all disciplines and research areas relevant to the pathophysiology and treatment of major neuropsychiatric disorders. Full-length and Brief Reports of novel results, Commentaries, Case Studies of unusual significance, and Correspondence and Comments judged to be of high impact to the field are published, particularly those addressing genetic and environmental risk factors, neural circuitry and neurochemistry, and important new therapeutic approaches. Concise Reviews and Editorials that focus on topics of current research and interest are also published rapidly.

Biological Psychiatry is ranked 4th out of the 95 Psychiatry titles and 16th out of 199 Neurosciences titles on the 2006 ISI Journal Citations Reports® published by Thomson Scientific.

About Elsevier

Elsevier is a world-leading provider of information solutions that enhance the performance of science, health, and technology professionals, empowering them to make better decisions, deliver better care, and sometimes make groundbreaking discoveries that advance the boundaries of knowledge and human progress. Elsevier provides web-based, digital solutions — among them ScienceDirect, Scopus, Elsevier Research Intelligence, and ClinicalKey — and publishes nearly 2,200 journals, including The Lancet and Cell, and over 25,000 book titles, including a number of iconic reference works.

The company is part of Reed Elsevier Group PLC, a world leading provider of professional information solutions in the Science, Medical, Legal and Risk and Business sectors, which is jointly owned by Reed Elsevier PLC and Reed Elsevier NV. The ticker symbols are REN (Euronext Amsterdam), REL (London Stock Exchange), RUK and ENL (New York Stock Exchange).

Media Contact:
Jayne Dawkins
Elsevier
+1 215 239 3674
Ja.dawkins@elsevier.com