Restaurant and Packaged Foods Can Have More Calories Than Nutrition Labeling Indicates

New Study Published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association

St. Louis, MO, 5 January 2010 – With obesity rising markedly, reliance on the accuracy of food labeling is an important weight management strategy. Since people who are trying to reduce their weight are encouraged to choose meals labeled as “lower in calories” or “reduced-energy” in restaurants and supermarkets, it is essential that the listed data are accurate. In a study published in the January 2010 issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, researchers from Tufts University found that some commercially prepared foods contained more calories than indicated in nutritional labeling.

Measured energy values of 29 quick-serve and sit-down restaurant foods averaged 18% more calories than the stated values. Likewise, measured energy values of 10 frozen meals purchased from supermarkets averaged 8% more calories than stated on the label.

The commercially prepared restaurant foods and supermarket frozen convenience meals were obtained in the Boston, MA, area. The energy content was measured and compared with nutrition data stated by the vendor or manufacturer. The restaurant chains included both quick-serve and sit-down establishments with broad distribution throughout the United States.

Because the goal of the study was to examine the accuracy of stated energy content of foods typically selected for weight control, specific restaurant menu items were chosen based on three criteria. Selected foods were (1) less than 500 kcal/serving as stated on the label, (2) typical American foods and (3) among those with the lowest stated energy contents on the menu. Supermarket purchases were focused on frozen complete meals that would be alternative choices to eating out.

The authors found a further complication with some restaurant meals. Five restaurants provided side dishes at no extra cost. The average energy provided by these items was 471 kcal, which was greater than the 443 kcal for the entrées they accompanied. Furthermore, some individual foods had discrepancies that were extreme, including three supermarket-purchased complete meals and seven restaurant foods that containing up to twice their stated energy contents.

The authors also note that the US Food and Drug Administration allows up to 20% excess energy content but weight must be no less than 99% of the stated value. This might lead manufacturers to add more food to the package to insure compliance with the weight standards and thereby exceed the stated energy content.

Lead investigator Susan B. Roberts, PhD, director, Energy Metabolism Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, and colleagues write, “These findings suggest that stated energy contents of reduced-energy meals obtained from restaurants and supermarkets are not consistently accurate, and in this study averaged more than measured values, especially when free side dishes were taken into account, which on average contained more energy than the entrees alone. For example, positive energy balance of only 5% per day for an individual requiring 2,000 kcal/day could lead to a 10-lb weight gain in a single year. If widespread, this phenomenon could hamper efforts to self-monitor energy intake to control weight, and could also reduce the potential benefit of recent policy initiatives to disseminate information on food energy content at the point of purchase.”

The article is “The Accuracy of Stated Energy Contents of Reduced-Energy, Commercially Prepared Foods” by Lorien E. Urban, MS; Gerard E. Dallal, PhD; Lisa M. Robinson, RD; Lynne M. Ausman, DSc, RD; Edward Saltzman, MD; and Susan B. Roberts, PhD. It appears in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Volume 110, Issue 1 (January 2010), published by Elsevier.

Full text of the article featured above is available upon request. Contact Lynelle Korte at 314-447-9227 or jadamedia@elsevier.com to obtain copies. Journalists wishing to interview the lead investigator Susan B. Roberts or her coauthors should contact Andrea Grossman at 617-636-3728 or andrea.grossman@tufts.edu.

###

About The Journal Of The American Dietetic Association
The official journal of the American Dietetic Association the Journal of the American Dietetic Association is the premier source for the practice and science of food, nutrition and dietetics. The monthly, peer-reviewed journal presents original articles prepared by scholars and practitioners and is the most widely read professional publication in the field. The Journal focuses on advancing professional knowledge across the range of research and practice issues such as: nutritional science, medical nutrition therapy, public health nutrition, food science and biotechnology, foodservice systems, leadership and management and dietetics education.

About The American Dietetic Association
 The American Dietetic Association is the world’s largest organization of food and nutrition professionals. ADA is committed to improving the nation’s health and advancing the profession of dietetics through research, education and advocacy.

About Elsevier

Elsevier is a world-leading provider of information solutions that enhance the performance of science, health, and technology professionals, empowering them to make better decisions, deliver better care, and sometimes make groundbreaking discoveries that advance the boundaries of knowledge and human progress. Elsevier provides web-based, digital solutions — among them ScienceDirect, Scopus, Elsevier Research Intelligence, and ClinicalKey — and publishes nearly 2,200 journals, including The Lancet and Cell, and over 25,000 book titles, including a number of iconic reference works.

The company is part of Reed Elsevier Group PLC, a world leading provider of professional information solutions in the Science, Medical, Legal and Risk and Business sectors, which is jointly owned by Reed Elsevier PLC and Reed Elsevier NV. The ticker symbols are REN (Euronext Amsterdam), REL (London Stock Exchange), RUK and ENL (New York Stock Exchange).

Media Contact:
Lynelle Korte
Elsevier
+1 314 447 9227
Jadamedia@elsevier.com